KNOX, John

(c. 1514-1572)
A Scottish Protestant adversary of Mary Stuart* (Mary Queen of Scots) and England's Elizabeth,* John Knox wrote The First Blast of the Trumpet against the Monstrous Regiment of Women (1558) and History of the Reformation of Religion within the Realme of Scotland (1587). Born around 1514 in Haddington, East Lothian, he attended grammar school and St. Andrews University and took holy orders, but converted to Protestantism in the early 1540s. He spent nineteen months in French galleys for joining Cardinal David Beaton's besieged murderer in St. Andrews Castle in 1547. Traveling to England in 1549, he preached at Berwick and Newcastle, became Edward VI's chaplain (1551), and persuaded Archbishop Thomas Cranmer* to include the "black rubric" concern­ing Communion in the 1552 Book of Common Prayer. During Mary I's* reign he pastored English exiles in Frankfurt before feuding with Richard Cox (1555), preached secretly in Scotland, then took over Geneva's English congregation (1556). First Blast targeted Mary but antagonized Elizabeth, effectively barring him from England. In 1559 he incited Scottish Protestants against the regent Mary of Guise and promoted a godly (Calvinist) commonwealth in Scotland, helping prepare the First Book of Discipline and a confession of faith. But he feuded with the Catholic Mary Queen of Scots until her fall in 1567 and thereafter found his influence nullified because James VI's* regents had to mol­lify Elizabeth. He died on 24 November 1572.
Knox regarded female rule as unscriptural and the Mass as idolatrous, identifying himself with Jeremiah and Mary I with Jezebel. Thinking that a Prot­estant nation violated its covenant by observing the Mass, he concluded in The Appellation to the Nobility and Estates (1558) that resistance to a ruler who sanctioned such blasphemy was lawful, distinguishing divinely established mon­archy from its holder. He later applied this principle to Mary Queen of Scots.
Bibliography
R. L. Greaves, Theology and Revolution in the Scottish Reformation: Studies in the Thought ofJohn Knox, 1980.
J. Knox, On Rebellion, ed. R. A. Mason, 1994.
R. A. Mason, ed., John Knox and the British Reformations, 1999.
William B. Robison

Renaissance and Reformation 1500-1620: A Biographical Dictionary. . 2001.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Knox, John — • Scotch Protestant leader, b. at Haddington, Scotland, between 1505 and 1515; d. at Edinburgh, 24 November, 1572 Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Knox, John     John Kno …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Knox,John — Knox, John. 1514? 1572. Scottish religious reformer and founder of Scottish Presbyterianism. While living in exile (1553 1559) during the reign of Mary Queen of Scots, a Catholic, he came under the influence of John Calvin. Returning to Scotland… …   Universalium

  • Knox, John — born с 1514, near Haddington, East Lothian, Scot. died Nov. 24, 1472, Edinburgh Scottish clergyman, leader of the Scottish Reformation and founder of Scottish Presbyterianism. Probably trained for the priesthood at the University of St. Andrews,… …   Universalium

  • Knox, John — (c. 1514 1572)    leaderof the Scottish Reformation and founder of Pres byterianism    John Knox was born at Haddington, Scotland, prior to 1515. He attended school in Haddington, but there is no record of his having attended university. He… …   Encyclopedia of Protestantism

  • Knox, John — (c. 1513–72)    Theologian and Polemicist.    Knox was born in Haddington, Scotland, and was educated at the University of Glasgow and perhaps at St Andrews. He took orders in the Roman Catholic Church, but soon became an enthusiastic supporter… …   Who’s Who in Christianity

  • Knox, John — ► (1513 72) Reformador presbiteriano escocés. Fue fundador de la Iglesia de Escocia. En 1546 abrazó la Reforma; fue deportado a Francia. En 1551 ocupó el cargo de capellán de Eduardo VI y como tal intervino en la revisión del Libro de oración… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • KNOX, JOHN —    the great Scottish Reformer, born at Giffordgate, Haddington, in 1505; studied at Glasgow University; took priest s orders; officiated as a priest, and did tutoring from 1530 to 1540; came under the influence of George Wishart, and avowed the… …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

  • KNOX, John — (1513 1572)    Scottish CALVINIST REFORMER whose famous The First Blast Against the Monstrous Regiment of Women (1558) aimed at MARY TUDOR (Catholic) for persecuting PROTESTANTS backfired when her sister, ELIZABETH I (Protestant) came to the… …   Concise dictionary of Religion

  • Knox, John — (1505? 1572)    Reformer and historian, was b. near Haddington, and ed. at the Grammar School there and at Glasgow. He is believed to have had some connection with the family of K. of Ranfurly in Renfrewshire. The year of his birth was long… …   Short biographical dictionary of English literature

  • John Knox — (c. 1510 – 24 November 1572) was a Scottish clergyman and leader of the Protestant Reformation who is considered the founder of the Presbyterian denomination. He was educated at the University of St Andrews and worked as a notary priest.… …   Wikipedia

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